Rare Earth Metals

Atomic Radius

In the lanthanide series, each element that comes after the one next to it starting from the left has one more electron in the outer shell. This rule applies to the actinide series too.


The rare earths are silver, silvery-white, or gray metals. The metals have high electrical conductivity, which means they respond to electricity.

The rare earths share many common properties, and it’s difficult to separate them from each other if they combine.


Rare earth metals are generally used for electronics and making electronic devices. 

Boiling and melting points

Rare Metals has an inconsistent rate of increasing and decreasing boiling and melting points. The boiling point has a pattern of increasing and decreasing through out the graph, and the melting points seems to decrease and increase through out the graph.

Location on the periodic table

The elements were located in different places (out of the table) because if they were inside the periodic table, wouldn’t have enough space, and the elements would interrupt other groups and periods.


The rare earth metals can be found on the earth’s crust, combined with some minerals, such as igneous rocks.



Atomic Radius

Each halogen has 7 electrons in their outer shells, going down the group.

Melting and boiling points

As you go down the group, the halogens’ melting and boiling points increase. 


The reactivity of halogens decreases down the group, the more protons the less reactive it is, and so that means that astatine and Iodine would boil or melt faster than chlorine and fluorine; bromine is between the 4 of them. Halogens are highly reactive with alkali metals, and alkaline earths.


Chlorine plays a big part in the human body and covering 0.15% of the human body.

Fluorine, as a liquid is used as rocket fuel.

Bromine and Iodineare used to kill germs in water, and water companies use them mostly to make sure their water is fresh, clean and safe to drink.

Astatine is used to kill cancer cells.

Location on the periodic table

Periodic table elements each have been put in their groups, and not that they all share common forms, but they all have 7 electrons in their outer shell and have been divided in that form.

Abundance on earth

Halogens are found in the environment only in the form of compounds and need to be separated to have their original form.